Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 - December 21, 1942), the German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology"
Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit (July 22, 1878 or 1879 - August, 1942), the Polish-Jewish children's author, pediatrician, and child pedagogist, known as Stary Doktor (Old Doctor)
Tina Modotti (August 16 (or 17) 1896 - January 5, 1942), the Italian photographer, model, silent film actress, and leftist who once playfully described her profession as "men"
Eric Ravilious (22 July 1903 - November 1942), the English painter, designer, book illustrator and wood engraver
Roberto Arlt (Buenos Aires, April 2, 1900 - July 26, 1942), the Argentine short-story writer, novelist, and playwright
Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Faynzilberg, 1897-1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeny Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev or Katayev, 1903-1942), the two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s
Alexander Beliaev (Алекса́ндр Рома́нович Беля́ев; 1884-1942), the Russian author of science fiction whose body of work from the 1920s and 1930s made him a highly regarded Russian author in that field
Yakov I. Perelman (Yakov Isidorovich Perelman) (1882-1942), the Russian author of many popular science books
Guglielmo Ferrero (July 21, 1871 — August 3, 1942), the Italian historian, journalist and novelist, author of the Greatness and Decline of Rome (6 vols., 1903-1908)
Jakob van Hoddis (born May 16 1887 in Berlin; died 1942 in Sobibór), the pen name of a German-Jewish expressionist poet Hans Davidsohn, of which name "Van Hoddis" is an anagram