Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 - December 21, 1942), the German-American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology"
Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit (July 22, 1878 or 1879 - August, 1942), the Polish-Jewish children's author, pediatrician, and child pedagogist, known as Stary Doktor (Old Doctor)
Tina Modotti (August 16 (or 17) 1896 - January 5, 1942), the Italian photographer, model, silent film actress, and leftist who once playfully described her profession as "men"
Eric Ravilious (22 July 1903 - November 1942), the English painter, designer, book illustrator and wood engraver
Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Faynzilberg, 1897-1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeny Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev or Katayev, 1903-1942), the two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s
Roberto Arlt (Buenos Aires, April 2, 1900 - July 26, 1942), the Argentine short-story writer, novelist, and playwright
Edward Irenaeus Prime-Stevenson, the American author
Konstantin Dmitrievich Balmont (June 15, 1867—December 24, 1942), the Russian symbolist poet, translator, one of the major figures of the Silver Age of Russian Poetry
Jakob van Hoddis (born May 16 1887 in Berlin; died 1942 in Sobibór), the pen name of a German-Jewish expressionist poet Hans Davidsohn, of which name "Van Hoddis" is an anagram
Ramaprasad Chanda, the Indian historian and archaeologist from Bengal